From time to time, the Water Division receives inquiries from customers experiencing “cloudy” or “milky” water. This phenomenon normally occurs during the winter months in St. Louis and is not related to the quality or safety of the tap water.
The City of St. Louis utilizes surface (river) water for our drinking water source. For this reason, the temperature of the water entering the purification process varies seasonally, from highs near 90ºF in late summer to 33ºF in the cold of winter. Water absorbs oxygen (air) from the atmosphere. The lower the temperature, the more oxygen will dissolve in the water. At very low temperatures, the water approaches saturation levels for oxygen. If water temperature does not change, the air remains dissolved in the water. But if the temperature rises (even a few degrees,) the water begins to lose its ability to retain the dissolved air.
Water flows from our treatment plants to your residence or business through underground mains and as it does so, it warms from the surrounding soil. When it enters your building, it may reside in the building’s plumbing pipes and warm more before you use it. Due to the increase in temperature, the dissolved air will release. Since it is under pressure in your plumbing pipes, the air remains in solution until you open your faucet. Much like opening a carbonated beverage bottle, when you release the water to atmospheric pressure by opening the tap, the dissolved air quickly comes out of solution in the form of millions of tiny bubbles, making the water appear cloudy or milky.
We hope this explanation addresses concerns you may have if experiencing this seasonal phenomenon. If you would like additional information on this or any other subject related to your drinking water, please contact the Water Division Laboratories for assistance by calling 314-592-8222, or by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.